THANDWE — Even as the president came to western Burma to urge an end to sectarian violence last week, security forces could not prevent Buddhist mobs from torching the homes of minority Muslims or hacking them to death, at times, unwittingly, even encouraging them.
That has raised questions about the government’s ability to quench a virulent strain of religious hatred blamed for the deaths of more than 240 people in the last 18 months.
Five Muslims were killed in the attack Tuesday in Thandwe Township, just hours before President Thein Sein touched down for a scheduled visit.
He promised an immediate investigation and, with uncharacteristic speed, state-run media by Saturday night said 44 suspects had been arrested.
Few details were released about the latest arrests but a report broadcast on state television late Saturday indicated members of both communities were arrested.
Officials in Arakan State said last week that the chairman of a nationalist Arakan political party and several of its members were among those detained.
On Sunday, the state-run Myanma Ahlin newspaper put the total of houses burned down in Thandwe last week at 114 houses. It said three religious buildings — most likely mosques — were destroyed, and 482 people were left homeless.
Still, as soldiers walked the dusty streets in the hardest-hit village of Thapyu Kyain, semi-automatics slung across their shoulders, Myint Aung and other Muslims residents were afraid.
They said authorities had plenty of opportunities to prevent a series of attacks Tuesday, each more brutal than the next, but did nothing. More than 110 homes were burned to the ground, and nearly 500 people were left homeless.
Initially, the Buddhist mobs numbering about 150 entered before dawn, setting one house on fire, but Muslim residents were able to push them back, said the 52-year-old, standing before a charred mosque and several homes.
Police detained three suspects soon after, but released them almost immediately following threats of more violence, he said.
Though police promised the Muslims villagers protection — and disarmed them and ordered them back into their homes — the mobs returned in even greater numbers at 9:30 a.m., and then again at 2:30 p.m.
Among the dead were a 94-year-old woman and an 89-year-old man, both too old to run, each with multiple stab wounds.
“We had no way to protect ourselves” said Win Myint, 51, another resident, standing in front of his demolished home, echoing complaints heard by victims in other attacks across the state.
“And the police did nothing. They just looked on. Now everyone is living in fear now.”
In an interview with Associated Press in New York, Foreign Minister Wunna Maung Lwin denied the charges that law enforcement or government troops failed to take necessary action.
There was more sectarian violence in Burma late Saturday, this time in the southern delta region, with police and residents saying Buddhist mobs destroyed a pair of Muslim homes. It was the first time sectarian unrest was reported in the area since the violence started in June 2012.
The violence in the town of Kyaunggon, about 120 kilometers (75 miles) west of the main city of Rangoon, came after news spread that a 14-year-old girl had allegedly been raped by a Muslim man. Kyaunggon resident Myint Soe said mobs destroyed the rape suspect’s home, as well as the home of another Muslim man elsewhere in the town. Police confirmed the violence and said Kyauggon was calm Sunday.
Burma, a predominantly Buddhist nation of 60 million, is undergoing a mind-boggling political transformation after a half-century of brutal military rule.
But greater freedoms of expression have had a dark side, exposing deep-seated hatred toward Muslims that, fueled by radical monks, have ignited attacks first in western Arakan State and then from Meikhtila in the country’s center to Lashio near the Chinese border.
Under the new democratization, a poorly trained and ill-equipped police force — made up almost exclusively of Buddhists — is now tasked with dealing with sectarian violence, the army only stepping in at the invitation of civilian authorities or during states of emergency.
The results, on many occasions, have been disastrous.
“From the facts as presented, it appears the police failed to do their job properly,” said Jim Della-Giacoma, the Asia program director for the International Crisis Group, a research organization.
“But it is not just the authorities fault here,” he said. “The community is being riled up by extremists. There is no justification for such violence.”
Tensions started to build in Thandwe one week ago, when a Buddhist taxi driver accused a Muslim shop owner of being abusive over a parking space dispute.
Several houses were burned or damaged in the hours that followed, and by Tuesday the anger exploded into mass violence.
Thein Sein was quoted by state media as saying he was “suspicious of the motives” of those who turned a “trivial argument and ordinary crime into racial and religious clashes.”
“According to the evidence in hand, rioters who set fire to the villages are outsiders,” he said. “Participation of all is needed to expose and arrest those who were involved in the incident and those instigating the conflict behind the scene.”
“Action will be taken in accordance with the law, without discrimination on the grounds of race and religion,” he said.
In what appeared to be rare criticism of “969,” a state media report said some organizations had distributed religious flags that were hung in front of thousands of Buddhist-owned homes and shops.
A Buddhist-led campaign, “969” has taken root nationwide with its supporters urging Buddhists to shop only at Buddhist stores and avoid marrying Muslims or selling homes to them.
Billboards with the logo were seen lining the bumpy roads.
Muslims in and around Thandwe also blamed outsiders, saying they had existed peacefully side by side with Buddhists for generations and never imagined it could be otherwise.
“Now, suddenly, anyone who believes in Islam is seen as the enemy,” said U Win Myint, a 51-year-old member of the ethnic Kaman Muslim minority. “They are targeting us just for our beliefs.”
Others specifically blamed 969 and “northern Rakhines.”
Zaw Lay Khar, 62, who lost her mother in the attack, described how mobs waving swords and knives came into the village.
“There was nothing we could do but run,” she said, adding that while the faces of the attackers were largely unfamiliar, she saw some Buddhist neighbors pointing out Muslim homes.
“I don’t know how this happened,” she said.